Storage and fresh-keeping technology of the hottes

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MA storage and fresh-keeping technology of garlic moss (Part I)

from the current theoretical research and practical experience of garlic moss, the combination of low temperature, gas limiting and preservative storage and fresh-keeping technology is relatively successful, which can make high-quality garlic moss stored for more than days, or even for the annual storage, with a good seedling rate of 96%, and the garlic moss after storage has a bright green color, crisp and tender texture and good flavor

1. Operation procedure

cold storage disinfection and sterilization → selection of storage resistant varieties → determination of harvest time → pre harvest treatment → collection and acquisition → short-distance dynamic transportation → heat dissipation → pre storage processing → pre cooling and sterilization → bagging → storage period management → determination of storage period → prevention and control of diseases and pests during storage → ex warehouse → long-distance transportation

2. Cold storage disinfection and sterilization

new cold storage may not be disinfected for the first time. Old refrigerators, especially those that stored other fruits and vegetables in the previous year, must be disinfected before storing garlic moss. Disinfection and sterilization shall be completed half a month before storage. The specific methods are as follows:

(1)% formaldehyde aqueous solution shall be sprayed into the cold storage

(2) prepare the solvent according to the ratio of formaldehyde: potassium permanganate =5:1, and fumigate the cold storage for hours at the dosage of 5g/m3

(3)1.. Spray 0% bleach solution into the cold storage

(4) add% copper sulfate in 10% lime water to prepare a solution, brush the cold storage wall, and dry it for standby

(5) 10g/m3 sulfur powder is ignited and fumigated in cold storage for hours

(6) fumigate the cold storage with 5% sec butylamine at the dosage of 5ml/m3 for hours

(7) 0.5% bleach aqueous solution or 0.5% copper sulfate aqueous solution can be used to brush the meshing clearance of the turnover frame and ball screw drive pair, and the cold storage appliances such as the vegetable rack and color strip cloth can be adjusted at will, which can be used for standby after drying

(8) spray the walls, shelves and floors with 0.5%-0.7% peracetic acid aqueous solution, or use 20% peracetic acid ml/m3 to fumigate in an electric furnace

(9) the above methods (4) and (2) are common, i.e. fumigating after brushing the wall. The sterilization effect is better. In the sterilized cold storage, garlic moss can be stored only after the odor is discharged. The above methods can be selected, and it is better to select different sterilization methods every year

3. Select storable varieties

garlic moss is mainly produced in Shandong, Jiangsu, Hebei, Shaanxi, Gansu, Henan, Liaoning and other provinces in China. It has a wide variety. According to the storable performance, it is divided into three types: urgent moss, stored moss and red Moss:

(1) urgent Moss: it is used for early listing. It is harvested in Guanzhong area from April 20 to May 5, and its storability is very poor

(2) storage of garlic moss: it is mainly used for storage, such as Cangshan garlic moss, Acheng garlic moss, etc. it is harvested in Guanzhong area from May 10 to May 20, with good storage resistance

(3) red Moss: it has certain storage resistance. It is harvested in Guanzhong area from June 1 to June 20. The moss bud is red and can be stored for about 90 days. Choose to store garlic moss (Cangshan garlic moss, Acheng garlic moss, etc.)

4. Determine the harvest time

if the garlic moss is harvested too early, he still enjoys a persistence today - tender and easy to break by means other than painting, high water content, unable to meet the quality standard, poor storage resistance and poor merchantability. After late harvest, the moss bracts swell, the base becomes white and fibrotic, and the moss stems age, losing their edible and commercial value. The mature period of garlic moss is short and the growth changes quickly. Generally, the harvest time is only 3-5 days. The word "fast" must be highlighted in the process of harvest. Harvest in time when the base of the moss stem is not aged and the moss bud is not fully expanded. The commonly used methods to determine the harvest time are:

(1) determine the harvest time based on the growth period: the growth period of garlic moss in Guanzhong area of Shaanxi Province is about 275 days (August 15 to May 15), and it is appropriate to harvest it around May 15

(2) the harvest time is determined by the appearance change: the upper part of the moss stem begins to bend, and the lower part of the moss bud forms a separation layer with the garlic neck, which is easy to break from the separation layer when used for bolting

(3) meteorological evaluation: one month before harvest, understand the meteorological conditions in the harvest period from the meteorological department to provide basis for decision-making and storage

5. Pre harvest treatment

garlic moss should be sterilized in the field before harvest to kill mold. Sterilization is carried out in two times, the first 20-30 days before harvest and the second 1-5 days before harvest. At present, the fungicides with good control effect on mold in the field are:

(1) spraying 50% sukeling wettable powder with 1500 times of aqueous solution

(2) spray 40% compound carbendazim suspension with 800 times aqueous solution

(3) spray 50% puhaiyin wettable powder 1000 times aqueous solution

(4) spray 70% thiophanate methyl 600 times aqueous solution. For the above four methods, one agent or different agents can be selected for the two spraying

6. Collection and purchase

(1) quality standard of garlic moss: moderate maturity, bright green color, crisp and tender texture, no aging at the base, no swelling of moss bud, less white moss, no disease and mechanical damage, uniform thickness of moss stem, no less than 30cm below the moss bud, and generally 40-50cm long

(2) harvesting time: it should be carried out at noon and afternoon on a sunny day, because at this time, the fireman's coat can become lighter, safer and cheaper, the swelling pressure in the plant body can be reduced, the moss strip is soft, the toughness is enhanced, it is easy to draw out, and the moss strip is not easy to be worn during harvesting and transportation. It is better to harvest from 10:00 to 18:00 every day. Do not harvest after rain or with dew

(3) harvesting technique: pull the moss stem by hand to break it from the separation layer (i.e. pull the moss). The stem of garlic moss (i.e. shoveling garlic) shoveled with a shovel blade is scratched, and the storage effect is poor, so this method can not be used

(4) temporary binding: bind the moss while harvesting. Tie the moss into a bundle, each 1.0-1.5kg

(5) temporary storage: temporarily stack the bound garlic moss under the awning on the ground to avoid strong light exposure. Pay attention to sanitation, and avoid soil contamination or bacterial contamination

(6) purchase: the garlic moss shall be purchased locally at the place of origin, and the quality shall be checked locally. The garlic moss purchased shall be packed in bags, each bag is about kg, and temporarily stacked under the awning. The stacking shall not be too high to prevent heating

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