Storage methods of the most popular traditional Ch

2022-08-01
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Storage and safekeeping of traditional Chinese medicine and processed products: storage and safekeeping methods

the storage and safekeeping of traditional Chinese medicine and processed products is a comprehensive science, which is a relatively complex and highly technical work. Chinese medicinal materials have complex properties, various varieties and high storage technology requirements. In terms of storage and storage, Chinese pharmaceutical workers have accumulated rich experience in long-term production practice, which is introduced as follows

(I) traditional storage and safekeeping method

the traditional technology of traditional Chinese medicine storage and safekeeping has the advantages of economy, effectiveness, simplicity, pest control and so on. It is still an important basic measure for integrated pest control in traditional Chinese medicine storage and safekeeping, and has certain practical value. The method can be roughly divided into the following aspects

1. cleaning and maintenance method sanitation is the basis of all prevention and control work. Experience has proved that it is the most basic and effective method to prevent warehouse insects from invading the warehouse, because the cleaning and sanitation work of the warehouse is paid attention to, and the living conditions of pests are deteriorated due to the elimination of the ways of insect infection. Its contents mainly include the cleaning of traditional Chinese medicine and its processed products, the warehouse and its surrounding environment, and the disinfection of the warehouse

2. moisture proof curing method changes the microclimate of the warehouse through storage technology, or uses natural hygroscopic substances, such as quicklime, to hygroscopic curing under lax sealing, which can inhibit the occurrence of mold and pests. The common methods are ventilation, moisture absorption and moisture resistance

the warehouse storing traditional Chinese medicine and processed products must be equipped with ventilation, easy sealing, temperature protection, moisture-proof, heat insulation and other equipment, so as to control and adjust the temperature and humidity in the warehouse by means of ventilation, cooling, moisture absorption, sealing and other methods according to the external conditions

the natural hygroscopic material is used to absorb the moisture in the humid air, which can keep the warehouse cool and dry. The commonly used hygroscopic substances include quicklime, charcoal, plant ash, etc. Now calcium chloride and silica gel are used to absorb moisture

in addition, the heat of sunlight or the method of heating and drying can be used to emit moisture to dry the traditional Chinese medicine and its processed products. This method can be used especially before warehousing or before and after the rainy season

3. sealed storage (including sealed storage) the purpose of sealed or sealed storage is to isolate the traditional Chinese medicine and its processed products from the outside air, temperature, humidity, light, bacteria, pests, etc., minimize the impact of these factors on the drugs, and maintain the original quality of the traditional Chinese medicine and its processed products to prevent moths and mildew. Traditionally, tanks, jars, cans, bottles, boxes, cabinets, buckets and other containers are used. Sealed or sealed storage or adding moisture absorbent such as charcoal and quicklime, the storage effect of sealed or sealed storage combined with moisture absorbent is better. Now we are developing and utilizing new materials with higher sealing performance, such as plastic film tents, bags, sealed warehouses, sealed chambers and other sealed storage, which can enhance the effect of drying, mildew prevention and insect prevention. When the temperature rises gradually, the relative humidity in the air increases, and various molds and pests are easy to reproduce and grow, the sealing method or sealing method can be used. According to the scale of the warehouse and the variety and quantity of the stored traditional Chinese medicine and its processed products, the sealed warehouse form or container sealing method shall be adopted. If the warehouse area is small, the variety of processed products is single, and the quantity is large, the warehouse sealing method or chamber sealing method can be used. If the warehouse area is large and there are many varieties and quantities of traditional Chinese medicine or processed products, the method of vacuum sealing with film material packaging bags and stacking separately can be adopted. If the bag stock of the pharmacy is small, it can be stored in closed containers such as tanks, jars, cans, glass bottles, plastic boxes, iron boxes (barrels). For fine materials, valuable traditional Chinese medicine or decoction pieces, such as ginseng, pilose antler, borneol, monkey jujube, bear gall, bezoar, etc., in addition to sealed storage in containers, composite film packaging bags can also be used for vacuum sealed storage. For Angelica sinensis, rehmannia, longan meat, Codonopsis pilosula and honey baked products with high sugar content, film materials can be used for sealed storage. It can also be stored in a dry and clean container. It should be noted that before the sealed or sealed method is used for tight storage, it is necessary to check whether the traditional Chinese medicine and processed products are dry, the water content cannot exceed the safety standard, and there are no signs of moth eaten or mildew. Otherwise, although they are sealed or sealed, they still can not receive good results, or even cause losses

4. antagonism and storage method is a storage method that uses two or more drugs or some articles with special smell to inhibit moth and mildew. For example, Agkistrodon acutus or white snake are stored together with pepper or garlic petals; Gecko is stored together with Zanthoxylum bungeanum, Evodia rutaecarpa or Bicheng eggplant; Scorpion and pepper or Asarum stored together; The hippocampus is stored together with Zanthoxylum bungeanum or Asarum; Cortex Moutan is stored together with Alisma orientalis and yam; Ginseng and asarum are stored together; Borneol and rushes are stored together; Borax and mung bean are stored together; Stored together with garlic, etc. The items with special smell are sealed and stored together, mainly referring to Baijiu and medicinal ethanol. For example, for animal, insect drugs and processed products, such as white snake, black snake, earthworm, gecko, ground beetle insect, Jiuxiang insect, etc; Traditional Chinese medicine and processed products containing oil, such as cypress kernel, plum kernel, almond, peach kernel, walnut kernel, jujube kernel, etc; For sugar containing traditional Chinese medicine and processed products, such as Codonopsis pilosula, radix rehmanniae, wolfberry fruit, longan meat, polygonatum, astragalus, jujube, etc; For valuable traditional Chinese medicine and processed products, such as ginseng, Panax notoginseng, Cordyceps sinensis, pilose antler, etc; For traditional Chinese medicine and processed products containing volatile oil, such as Angelica sinensis, Ligusticum chuanxiong, etc; It can be sealed and stored by spraying a small amount of 95% medicinal ethanol or about 50 ° Baijiu, which can achieve the effect of moth and mold prevention

(II) application of new storage technologies and methods. Processed traditional Chinese medicine products often have different processing methods. After being made into decoction pieces, they have different properties. Some decoction pieces are also processed together with different auxiliary materials, which increases their complexity and brings more difficulties to storage. Although the traditional storage experience and methods can solve some problems, they are far from meeting the needs of the development of traditional Chinese medicine. In recent years, with the development of modern science and technology, Chinese pharmaceutical workers have done a lot of research work in this area. Some physical and chemical methods have been continuously applied in the storage of traditional Chinese medicine and processed products, making the storage methods more scientific and reasonable bioplastics. The application and research status of new technologies and methods for storage and preservation of traditional Chinese medicine and processed products in China are summarized as follows:

1. drying technologies include far-infrared radiation drying technology, microwave drying technology, etc. See the drying of decoction pieces for details

2. air curtain moisture-proof technology air curtain, also known as air curtain or air lock, is a device installed on the warehouse door to automatically prevent cold air in the warehouse from being discharged outside the warehouse and hot air outside the warehouse from invading the warehouse, so as to achieve the purpose of moisture-proof. According to the test results of relevant parties, the relative humidity and temperature in the reservoir are quite stable in the plum rain season, which indicates that the air curtain can prevent and reduce the impact of humid air outside the reservoir on the reservoir, thus playing a moisture-proof role

3. controlled atmosphere storage technology controlled atmosphere storage is a new technology, which was explored in the 1970s and successfully used in the early 1980s. It is an effective method to store traditional Chinese medicine by controlling the oxygen concentration in the air that affects the variation of traditional Chinese medicine. Its basic principle is to control organic components such as traditional Chinese medicine, storehouse insects and microorganisms, so as to inhibit the physiological metabolic activities of the organism. The growth and reproduction of molds, microorganisms and pests depend on water, temperature and gas components. Oxygen is a necessary condition for the growth and reproduction of microorganisms, molds and pests; However, nitrogen is odorless, non-toxic and inert gas with inactive chemical properties; The increase of carbon dioxide concentration is not conducive to the development of molds and pests, because they cannot breathe, and all life activities are prevented, resulting in suffocation. The controlled atmosphere storage method is to artificially cause low oxygen or high concentration of carbon dioxide by reducing oxygen, filling nitrogen, or reducing oxygen and filling carbon dioxide, so as to achieve the purpose of killing insects, preventing insects and mildew. It is characterized by saving labor, reducing labor intensity, not polluting the environment, good preservation quality, easy management and low cost. It is proved that controlled atmosphere storage of Chinese medicinal materials can not only effectively kill the pests of medicinal materials, but also prevent the growth of pests and molds. It can preserve the color, skin color and quality of medicinal materials. It is an ideal storage method. In particular, it has more practical application value and greater economic significance in the storage of medicinal materials that are vulnerable to pests and valuable and rare medicinal materials

4. gas sterilization technology gas sterilization mainly refers to ethylene oxide mold prevention technology and mixed gas mold prevention technology

(1) ethylene oxide mildew prevention: ethylene oxide is a gas sterilization insecticide. Its mechanism of action is mainly that it reacts with the active hydrogen atoms in amino, hydroxyl, phenol or sulfhydryl groups of bacterial protein molecules to produce hydroxyethyl derivatives, which blocks bacterial metabolism and produces irreversible killing effect. It is characterized by strong diffusivity and penetration. It is ideal for killing various bacteria, molds, insects and insect eggs. Ethylene oxide as a gas sterilizer has been widely used in the sterilization of medical materials and some drugs

(2) mould proof of mixed gas: ethylene oxide is an organic solvent with low boiling point (13~14 ℃). There is danger of flammability and explosion. The above disadvantages can be overcome by using ethylene oxide mixed gas. It is composed of ethylene oxide and Freon according to the international general formula. The utility model has the advantages of reliable aseptic effect, safety, simple operation, etc

5.60Co- γ X-ray radiation technology adopts 60Co- γ Method for killing insects and sterilizing Chinese medicinal materials, processed products and Chinese patent medicines by X-ray. Studies have proved that the effect of killing insects is remarkable. However, due to management restrictions, large capital investment, strict protective measures, complex equipment, high cost, difficult maintenance and many other problems, it was not popularized and applied in the 1980s. It is suitable for the storage of traditional Chinese medicine and processed products if the medicinal materials are sealed after radiation

6. low temperature refrigeration technology is a method to use steam to kill mold, miscellaneous bacteria and pests contained in traditional Chinese medicine and processed products. It is a simple, cheap and reliable sterilization method. According to the sterilization temperature, steam sterilization can be divided into three methods: low high temperature long-term sterilization, sub high temperature short-term sterilization and ultra-high temperature instant sterilization. At present, low-temperature and long-term sterilization is commonly used in China. Many researchers have pointed out that the use of ultra-high temperature instant sterilization is much superior in terms of energy saving or the destruction of traditional Chinese medicine ingredients. Ultra high temperature instant sterilization is to quickly heat the sterilized material to 15 ℃. If it is 0 ℃ in a vibrating environment, it will be sterilized in 2~4 seconds. The sterilization is based on the use of pneumatic conveying technology and steam sterilization technology. During the transportation of drugs, the superheated high-temperature steam as the transmission power is used to transport and sterilize the drugs at the same time. Due to the high sterilization temperature and short sterilization time, the speed of heating to kill microorganisms is faster than that of the reaction of drug components, so the efficacy loss is very small. It is reported that ultra-high temperature instant sterilization has the advantages of no residual toxicity, low cost, less investment and less component loss

7. the fumigation and anti mildew technology of volatile oil of traditional Chinese medicine is to use some volatile oil of traditional Chinese medicine to volatilize and fumigate traditional Chinese medicine or processed products, so as to achieve the effect of bacteriostasis and sterilization.

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